If you remove a page or change websites, or somehow just need to set up a redirect, the best way to do it (for the sake of Google) is with what’s know as a “301 redirect”. Much has been said over the years about how they work, but Google has just revealed a bit more.
You can read more details about this on this post from Search Engine Journal.
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Up until around 2016, it was thought that Google passed roughly 80% of the equity on your site through a redirect, meaning redirects could hurt your rankings a little bit (though they were still often a good thing to use). In 2016 Google announced that there would no longer be a PageRank loss, meaning that 301 redirects would pass 100% of the equity through a link.
It gets a little confusing, though, because every link on the internet loses a bit of equity through them (known as decay). If 301 redirects really didn’t leak any PageRank, that would seem to open the door for spammers. Google’s John Mueller confirmed that was indeed the case, and that they treat 301’s by essentially setting a canonical on the receiving link. A canonical is a way you can tell Google “we have two pages here, but only count this one”. It makes sense.
Mueller took it further by cautioning against redirect chains (where a redirect points to another redirect, and maybe others, before finally landing on a page). Google can detect when a site is being shady and they’ll sniff that out pretty quickly.
At the end of the day, use redirects wisely and Google will make sure that your site isn’t hurt in any way.